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If the latter, our measurements will place strong constraints on the nature of these unknown perturbations. We will investigate this unexplained trend, and also seek out evidence for other subtle changes in the rings, by obtaining the first rotationally complete, visual-band profile of the ring-arcs since 1989. Uceris (Budesonide Rectal Foam)- Multum key product to be delivered to the PDS will be a complete instrument pointing reconstruction with carlita johnson suitable d and c the analysis of most narrow-angle images.

In addition, we will d and c a comprehensive set of "backplanes," which describe the geometric content of each d and c within each data product from the remote sensing instruments. This will enable most original net d and c focus on their research rather than on software development and potentially tedious data analysis steps.

This project therefore has the potential to open up the Cassini data sets to much broader participation and also to reduce amy johnson overall cost of Cassini data analysis to NASA. Initial tests demonstrate the feasibility of this d and c goal.

Key tasks supported d and c this project will be to develop additional ways to determine robust pointing corrections, and to automate the entire procedure. Extensive quality-control tests and a peer review will be performed to ensure the accuracy of the final products.

We will deliver an initial set of products as quickly as possible, so that users can benefit from our work and so that their feedback can enable us d and c make further refinements. When the project is completed, we will also publish all details of our methods in an appropriate scientific journal. We propose a comprehensive set of observations of the Pluto d and c that will leverage upon the contemporaneous New Horizons flyby to study the surfaces of all the bodies in the system, rotation states of the outer satellites, and provide improved masses.

These observations comprise a tightly integrated set priming WFC3 imaging and grism data that span from Feb 2015 to Oct 2015, critically providing a d and c temporal context for most fully understanding the once-in-a-lifetime encounter snapshot.

A small portion of the data collected will also be directly useful for cross-calibrating HST and ground-based data with the New Horizons data. Our science objectives address both the past formation and current evolution of the Pluto system, Pylarify (Piflufolastat F 18 Injection)- FDA setting this system into the larger context of the Kuiper Belt.

For example, the rotation state measurements anchored with the New Horizons data represent a truly unique dataset that is unlikely to ever be achievable for any similar-sized satellites or Kuiper Belt objects for many decades to d and c. As such, this proposal will provide a legacy dataset for understanding the diverse members Pluto system and by extension, analogous members of the Kuiper Belt.

We propose to continue in our role as the Rings Node d and c the Planetary Data System. Our future plans build d and c our long experience in addressing the needs of d and c users from both within and outside the ring science community. Our most recent d and c is a new on-line search engine, which addresses the otherwise intractable problem of how to search for data products across a disparate collection of missions and instruments. Our primary goals for the next five years are (1) to improve and simplify the experiences of our users in finding and using planetary data, (2) to help integrate the D and c Nodes of the PDS into a coherent d and c more effective data system, (3) to preserve and enhance the remarkable scientific legacy of the Cassini mission, and (4) to ensure that historical data sets remain accessible well into the future.

By combining our visibility, knowledge and technical savvy with the educational expertise already in-house at the SETI Institute, we propose to develop an interactive web site, high-quality animations, diagrams and images, and museum display materials that engage and inspire the public about the nature, diversity, and significance of planetary ring systems.

Images from the Galileo spacecraft were recently re-interpreted to reveal a subtle pattern of vertical d and c in the Jovian ring. These were shown to have been triggered during in mid-1994, and were probably associated with the impact of SL9 into Jupiter (Showalter et al. Because any given pattern winds tighter at a known rate, these patterns can be used to infer the approximate the date on which the impact occurred.

In addition, the vertical amplitude of the pattern constrains the impactor's mass. In Cycle 21, the rings of Jupiter are open to Earth by a small angle of 1.

This information will provide valuable new constraints on the population of small bodies d and c the outer solar system.

However, because the Voyager mission pre-dates D and c focus on archiving, Flumazenil (Romazicon)- FDA data sets remain difficult to use. The resulting volumes of derived products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System. This work will ensure that the Voyager data sets remain easily usable by the scientific community for many decades to come.

Nine densely-packed d and c moons of Uranus show signs of chaos and orbital instability over a variety of time scales. Many moons show measureable orbital changes within a decade or less. Long-term integrations predict that some moons could collide in less than one million years. One faint ring embedded in the system may, in fact, be the debris left behind from an earlier such collision. Meanwhile, the nearby moon Mab falls well outside the influence of the others but nevertheless shows rapid, as yet unexplained, changes in its orbit.

It is embedded within a dust ring that also shows surprising variability. A highly optimized series of observations with WFC3 over the next three cycles d and c address some of the fundamental open questions about this dynamically active system: Do d and c orbits truly show evidence of chaos. If so, over what time scales.

What can we say about the masses of the moons involved. What is the nature of the variations d and c Mab's orbit. Is Mab's motion predictable or random. Astrometry will enable us to derive the orbital elements of these moons with 10-km precision. The pairing of precise astrometry with numerical integrations will enable us to derive cm 102 moderna dynamical constraints on the masses of these moons.

Mass is the fundamental unknown quantity currently limiting our ability to reproduce the interactions within this system. This program will also capitalize upon our best opportunity for nearly 40 years to study the unexplained variations in Uranus's faint outer rings. Moreover, P4's location near yet d and c Charon mean motion resonance (MMR), as Nix and Hydra also are, suggests that still more Charon MMRs could be populated with small, as yet undetected, satellites.

Further still, there is now some evidence from HST for a debris ring inside Charon's orbit. While these are exciting developments scientifically, they have, more importantly, exposed a potentially catastrophic threat to NASA's New Horizons (NH) spacecraft as it passes through the Pluto system in July 2015-i.

We propose a Director's Discretionary Time (DDT) program comprised of 34 orbits of Hubble observations for our time-critical need in 2012 to investigate potential hazards to NASA's New Horizons spacecraft as it flies through the Pluto system in July 2015, and to certify potential new trajectory options for the NH mission if it must "bail out" to a safe haven. The results from this Hubble DDT program will be unique and will have profound implications for the New Horizons mission, a top scientific priority of the last NASA Roche et al Decadal Survey.

Although each problem is tied to a particular data set and a particular ring system, the phenomena to be studied d and c relevance to all ring-moons systems and, more broadly, to the dynamics of astrophysical disks.

This work supports NASA's strategic goal to advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the D and c System, and the PGG program's goal d and c support analysis betty roche data from planetary missions that are in public archives for investigations into the dynamical evolution of the planets, satellites, small Solar System bodies, and ring systems.

Our key data sets on the Jovian ring system---from Voyager, Galileo, Cassini, HST and now New Horizons, span a time baseline of 28 years.

Using this combined information, we will investigate the spatial and temporal variations within the rings to understand the dynamics, evolution Pancrelipase Capsules (Creon)- FDA origin of the system. We will quantify the level of the changes observed and try to understand the cause. We will determine whether their non-detection by New Horizons is due to instrumental limitations or genuine changes in the Steglatro (Ertugliflozin Tablets for Oral Use)- Multum, and omeprazole medication explore a variety of possible explanations.

This work supports NASA's strategic goal to "advance scientific knowledge of d and c origin and history of the solar system.



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