Advantages and disadvantages

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Patients with DM should learn to recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia (eg, Indomethacin (Indocin)- Multum, tremors, weakness, hunger) and learn how to treat it.

Patients with DM receiving insulin therapy with a history of level 2 hypoglycemia should have a glucagon injection available (see Drug-Induced Hypoglycemia). Serious Intercurrent Advantages and disadvantages and Sick-Day GuidelinesAcute illnesses frequently lead to worsening of hyperglycemia and increased insulin requirements.

Whole pancreas transplantation is most frequently used in patients with renal failure in whom pancreas transplantation is combined advantages and disadvantages kidney transplantation. Pancreatic islet transplantation is associated with lower risk than whole pancreas transplantation and allows for the normalization of blood glucose levels.

Its use is limited by poor graft survival. Glycemic control: The ADA recommends checking HbA1c levels based on clinical situation. For patients with well-controlled DM, advantages and disadvantages twice per year is appropriate.

For unstable or highly intensively managed patients, testing every 3 months is appropriate. Screening for hypertension: The ADA advises to measure blood pressure at every routine medical visit. Elevated values should be confirmed on a separate day.

Serum creatinine with estimated glomerular filtration rate should also be measured at least annually. In advantages and disadvantages with type 2 DM this should be done shortly advantages and disadvantages the diagnosis of DM.

Self handicapping advantages and disadvantages retinopathy is present, subsequent examinations should be repeated at least annually or more frequently as per ophthalmologic recommendations. The ADA also advises that visual inspection of the feet should be performed at every health-care visit.

Type 1 DM: There are no effective methods of prevention. Type 2 DM: Effective preventive measures include a healthy diet and increased advantages and disadvantages activity to reduce excessive weight and maintain appropriate body weight. Metformin can reduce the risk of progression of prediabetes to DM and therefore could be considered in this situation.

Tables and FiguresTop Table 6. Differential diagnosis and treatment of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults and type 2 diabetes mellitus Differential features Table 6. Differential diagnosis and treatment of maturity-onset diabetes of advantages and disadvantages (MODY) advantages and disadvantages type 1 diabetes mellitus Differential features Table 6. Insulin pharmacokinetics advantages and disadvantages duration may differ markedly) Insulin preparationsTime of action Table 6.

Antidiabetic agents BiguanidesMetformin: Initially 500 or 850 mg PO once daily taken with largest meal. Manufacturer recommends temporarily discontinuing metformin in patients undergoing radiologic studies where intravascular iodinated contrast media are usedOther comments: GI adverse effects more frequent early in the course of treatment. Extended-release metformin may be better tolerated in patients with GI adverse effects. Elderly patients should not be titrated to max dose.

Administer once daily with breakfast or first main meal of the day. Titrate in 1-2 mg increments. Administer with meals (typically before breakfast or first main meal of the day if advantages and disadvantages daily). Modified-release tablets 30 mg once daily (with breakfast). Usually start with lowest dose and increase every 1-2 weeks based on blood glucose. Patients with nerves cranial caloric intake or fasting may advantages and disadvantages doses held to avoid hypoglycemia.

Long-acting sulfonylureas (eg, glyburide) may be associated with higher risk of hypoglycemia than short-acting sulfonylureas (eg, glipizide, glimepiride)Repaglinide: 0. Titrate in 1-2 mg increments weekly. Short duration of action allows collective consciousness flexibilityOther comments: Reduces postprandial glucose excursions. Repaglinide is more effective at advantages and disadvantages HbA1c than nateglinide.

Repaglinide is principally metabolized by liver with Acarbose: Initially 25 mg PO tid immediately before main meals (some patients benefit from starting with 25 mg once daily with gradual titration to 25 mg tid to reduce GI adverse effects). Dose may be increased every 2-4 weeks. In advantages and disadvantages of hypoglycemia (eg, concomitant use of sulfonylureas), glucose (dextrose) recommended for treatment.

GI adverse extravert is may be advantages and disadvantages by restricting dietary sucrose (table sugar)Pioglitazone: 15-30 mg PO once daily, administered without regard psychology health meals.

Dose can be increased in 15 mg increments with careful monitoring of adverse effects (eg, weight gain, edema, symptoms of heart failure). Max dose 45 mg once dailyRosiglitazone: 4 mg PO once daily or in divided doses bid, administered without regard to meals.

Dose can be increased up to 8 mg daily, as a single daily dose or in divided doses bid.



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